Tuesday, February 24, 2009

LIST OF -TARU ADJECTIVES


OK, it's time for me to post another list to feed my OCD. Today I came across the word 悠然 【ゆうぜん】 (n,adj-t,adv-to) with an air of composure; calmly.
So I got to thinking: what's the dealie-o with these -taru adjectives? I found out that 形容動詞 adjectives are pretty rare in comparison to the "-na" and "-i" adjectives (I'll do another post on "-nai" adjectives soon.). I did a little searching on line and learned that true -taru adjectives originate from the classical Japanese ending "-toari" which devolved into "-tari," which declines into what we now see as "-taru" adjectives. It seems that the "-taru" adjectives have an antiquated air, but several are still in common use. I couldn't find a comprehensive list on line for English-speaking students of Japanese, so here's my attempt, which I'll update periodically. (If anyone thinks of a word I've left off the list, let me know and I'll add it.)

A. -TARU ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM DUPLICATE KANJI

堂々(P); 堂堂 【どうどう】 (adj-t) (1) magnificent; grand; impressive; dignified; majestic; imposing; stately; (2) fair; square; open; (adv-to) (3) grandly; boldly; confidently; (4) fairly; squarely; (5) unreservedly; without apology; without hesitation
悄悄; 悄々 【しおしお; しょうしょう; すごすご】 (adj-t,adv-to) (uk) in low spirits; dejected; sad
昭昭; 昭々 【しょうしょう】 (adj-t,adv-to) (obsc) clear; bright; plain; obvious

粛粛; 粛々 【しゅくしゅく】 (n,adj-t,adv-to) silent; solemn; quiet
爛爛; 爛々 【らんらん】 (adj-t,adv-to) glaring; flaming; fiery; blazing
濛々; 濛濛; 朦朦; 朦々 【もうもう】 (adj-t,adv-to) (1) dense (e.g. fog, dust, etc.); thick; (2) vague (as in being unable to think clearly); dim
惻々 【そくそく】keenly; heartily
凛々; 凛凛 【りんりん】 (adj-t,adv-to) severe; intense; biting

B. TWO-KANJI -TARU ADJECTIVES
惨憺; 惨澹 【さんたん】 (adj-t,adv-to) miserable; pitiful; tragic; wretched; horrible
宛転 【えんてん】 (adj-t,adv-to) (1) moving smoothly; (2) (of eyebrows) shapely
忸怩 【じくじ】 (adj-t,adv-to) bashful; shameful

暗澹【あんたん】 (adj-t,adv-to) dark; gloomy; somber; depressing

荒涼; 荒寥 【こうりょう】 (adj-t,adv-to) desolate; dreary; bleak

索莫; 索漠; 索寞 【さくばく】 (adj-t,adv-to) dreary; bleak; desolate

蕭寥 【しょうりょう】 (adj-t,adv-to) (arch) desolate; lonely; barren

蕭索(oK) 【しょうさく】 (adj-t) lonely

蕭条 【しょうじょう】 (adj-t,adv-to) dreary; bleak; lonely

落莫 【らくばく】 (adj-t,adv-to) desolate; dreary; lonesome

溌剌 【はつらつ】 (adj-t,adv-to) lively; vigorous; sprightly; vivid
C. TWO-KANJI -TARU ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -然
消然; 悄然 【しょうぜん】 (adj-t,adv-to) dejected; dispirited
昭然 【しょうぜん】 (adj-t,adv-to) manifest; clear
呆然; 茫然; 惘然 【ぼうぜん; ボーゼン; もうぜん(惘然)】 (adj-t,adv-to) dumbfounded; overcome with surprise; in blank amazement; in a daze
燦然 【さんぜん】 (n,adj-t,adv-to) brilliance; radiance

悠然 【ゆうぜん】 (n,adj-t,adv-to) with an air of composure; calmly

泰然 【たいぜん】 (adj-t,adv-to) calm; composed; self-possessed; firm

渾然; 混然 【こんぜん】 (adj-t,adv-to) whole; entire; harmonious; well-rounded
D. FOUR KANJI -TARU ADJECTIVES
曖昧模糊 【あいまいもこ(uK)】 (adj-na,adj-t,adv-to) obscure; vague; ambiguous
泰然自若 【たいぜんじじゃく(uK)】 (adj-t,adv-to) having presence of mind; self-possessed; imperturbable; calm and self-possessed
失意泰然 【しついたいぜん】 (adj-t,adv-to) (arch) keeping calm and collected at times of disappointment; maintaining a serene state of mind in adversity
満目荒涼 【まんもくこうりょう】 (adj-t,adv-to) all nature being bleak and desolate; scene looking desolate and forlorn as far as the eye can see

荒涼落莫 【こうりょうらくばく(uK)】 (adj-na,adj-t,adv-to) (arch) scene looking desolate and forlorn
空空漠漠; 空々漠々 【くうくうばくばく(uK)】 (adj-no,adj-t,adv-to) (arch) vast; boundless; empty; vague
生気溌剌 【せいきはつらつ】 (adj-t,adv-to) being full of vitality; being vivacious
才気溌剌 【さいきはつらつ】 (adj-t,adv-to) resourceful and quick-witted; showing a flash of brilliance; have a keen (sparkling) intellect
生気溌剌 【せいきはつらつ】 (adj-t,adv-to) being full of vitality; being vivacious

E. ONE KANJI PRE-NOUN ADJECTIVALS (technically not -taru 形容動詞 adjectives, but I'm putting them here for reference b/c they are 連体詞 adjectives that end in -taru)
眇たる 【びょうたる】 (adj-pn) small; minute; tiny; little; insignificant
最たる 【さいたる】 (adj-pn) prime; conspicuous
主たる 【しゅたる】 (adj-pn) main; principal; major
F. TWO KANJI PRE-NOUN ADJECTIVALS
名立たる 【なだたる】 (adj-pn) famous; notorious; noted

59 comments:

  1. This is well put together, I commend you. This is a great way to put your OCD to good use for your fellow man.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks Michael for the list. It was a big help. My Sensei was having a hard time explaining it. Don't you just love kanji

    ReplyDelete
  3. 雑然 ざつぜん Noun, Taru-adjective, Adverb taking the 'to' particle
    1. disorderliness; confusion; jumble; mess

    いろんな物が雑然と散らばっていたのだ。

    ReplyDelete
  4. Wow, this list is really helpful
    what about 煌々たる (brilliant, dazzling, bright)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thansk for sharing What an interesting site you have i really take a good look buy cocaine online and you can also take a good look at our blog too for more information buy crack cocaine online we also recommend you to take a good look at this site too they have good content buy mdma crystals online more of the site still want you to take a closer look too as they have really good content buy crystal meth online thanks for using your time to check on the link.

    ReplyDelete
  6. We are proud to say that all our products buy clonazepam powder online are not displayed online without going through an intensive quality assurance process. buy ativan (lorazepam) online They are high-quality and unmatched in the industry. buy peruvian cocaine online, If you’re not happy, talk to us. buy volkswagen cocaine online Your happiness and satisfaction is our priority. buy crack cocaine online , buy cocaine powder online , buy mescaline online

    ReplyDelete
  7. Buy ADHD pills online and cure attention-deficite hyperactive disorder
    buy ADHD pills online/
    Order Adderall online without Prescription
    buy adderall online
    best place to buy adderall online
    buy dexedrine online
    how to buy dexedrine online
    buy ritalin online

    ReplyDelete
  8. have you been looking for to buy research chemicals online ? check this website out. they got original product that will help you during you tests. this is also the best place to buy heroin online in USA buy if you are in CANADA the you can also buy heroin in CANADA. How ever if you want Quality Cocaine, you can get it here buy cocaine online in USA

    ReplyDelete

  9. Thanks for sharing What an interesting site you have i really take a good look buy cocaine online and you can also take a good look at our blog too for more information buy crack cocaine online we also recommend you to take a good look at this site too they have good content buy mdma crystals online more of the site still want you to take a closer look too as they have really good content buy crystal meth online thanks for using your time to check on the link .order cocaine online

    ReplyDelete
  10. Did you know that you can easily view the contents of your phone on your TV without a cable? With a screen mirror app you can easily do the screen mirroring from Android to TV. Check out www.screenmirroring.me to find out more.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Buy ADHD pills online and cure attention-deficite hyperactive disorder buy ADHD pills online/ Order Adderall online without Prescription buy adderall online best place to buy adderall online
    buy dexedrine online how to buy dexedrine onlinebuy ritalin online have you been looking for to buy research chemicals online ? check this website out

    ReplyDelete
  12. Buy Cocaine,coka block.ketamine,herion,crystal meth ,weed,mdma ,bmk oil and powder ,LSD,DMT

    text or call....+1(725) 333-4092 
    whatsapp ....... +1(725) 333-4092 
    wicker...............pharma240

    ReplyDelete
  13. Great article. As always! I’m about to start naturelifeaayurveda working on a blog on my website and although
    someone else will be producing it for us, this article will be a great help to make sure
    that we’re on the right track to creating successful, emedsshop engaging content. Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  14. Welcome to munchkin kitty cattery, home of
    munchkins kittens for sale. As Registered and well recognized munchkins kittens breeder we have been raising Bengal kittens kittens since 2013. A family run cattery, we have extensive experience in breeding and grooming munchkins kittens,
    Hypoallergenic munchkins kittens for sale . We provide an opportunity to become an owner of our highly valued Munchkins Kittens for sale which have been well trained and have all qualities of a good munchkin kitten such as calmed personalities of munchkin kittens and good tempers .We equally provide shipping services to ensure your munchkin kitten arrives your location with no hassles. So feel at home adopt a munchkin kitten online or adopt a munchkin kitten near me with ease ,Before adopting a munchkin kitten you have a munchkin kittens price. please visit our site:
    https://munchkinkittycattery.company.com/

    ReplyDelete
  15. To buy crack cocaine online you can easily reach out to us at buy ketamine online USA store. We are one of the most reputed and well established stores from where you can buy Colombian cocaine online.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Email Us:- inkdrop121@gmail.com

    We're the producers of legal documents and we provide documents like Drivers license, passport, visa, ssn, citizenship certificate and many more. If you are interested or for more information please do not hesitate to get in touch with us via Email Us:- inkdrop121@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hello, Thank you for sharing the knowledgeable blog with us, I hope that you will post many more in future. Buy Volkswagen Cocaine Online with us. We delivered top quality Volkswagen Cocaine in your door step.

    ReplyDelete

    ReplyDelete
  18. A great and awesome write up. An all time relevant article. We are THE RESEARCH CHEMICAL SUPPLIERS(RCS). We Supply top quality Stimulants,
    Depressants, Dissociative, Opioids, Cannabinoids and Pills from china. Safe and discrete delivery. 100% product quality guarantee.
    Place an order today and benefit from our discount offer visit: https://theresearchchemicalsuppliers.com/

    ReplyDelete
  19. french bulldog have become the most wanted breed of dogs. everyone want to have this breed as their pet. where-to-buy-french-bulldog thanks for giving me this opportunity to place a comment on your blog.

    ReplyDelete
  20. NAGAQQ: AGEN BANDARQ BANDARQ ONLINE ADUQ ONLINE DOMINOQQ TERBAIK

    Cari Situs Judi Online yang fair ?
    No BOT - No ADMIN dan murni PLAYER vs PLAYER
    Solusinya hnya di NagaQQ AGEN BANDARQTERPERCAYA
    => Bonus Refferal 20%
    => Bonus Turn Over 0,5%
    => Hanya dengan nominal deposit 15ribu sudah bisa bermain 9 game
    => Dan raih jackpot puluhan sampai ratusan juta setiap harinya..
    => Meyediakan Deposit pulsa XL & SIMPATI


    WHATSAPP : +855977509035
    Line : Cs_nagaQQ
    TELEGRAM :+855967014811

    ReplyDelete
  21. What a great content we have here buy painkillers online as we browse we also see this blog too and is pretty good buy norco online we also realize that blog are good for business we also bring buy oxycodone online best blog to visit

    ReplyDelete
  22. buy-bitmain-antminer-t19-84th-online
    buy-bitmain-antminer-z15-online
    buy-bitmain-antminer-t19-84th-online
    buy-geforce-rtx-2070-online
    buy-geforce-rtx-3090-online
    buy-goldshell-hs5-2-7th-s-online
    buy-goldshell-hs5-5-4-th-s-online
    buy-goldshell-kd2-6th-s-online
    buy-goldshell-kd5-18th-s-online
    buy-ibelink-bm-k1-5-3th-s-online
    buy-ibelink-bm-n1-6-6th-s-online
    buy-innosilicon-a10-pro-eth-500mh-s
    buy-innosilicon-a10-pro-eth-750mh-s-online
    buy-innosilicon-t3-57th-s-online
    buy-linzhi-phoenix-2600mh-s-online
    buy-microbt-whatsminer-m20s-online
    buy-microbt-whatsminer-m30s-online
    buy-microbt-whatsminer-m30s-online
    buy-nvidia-geforce-rtx-3060-ti-online
    buy-nvidia-geforce-rtx-3080-online
    buy-pandaminer-b7-pro-8g-online
    buy-strongu-hornbill-h8-74th-s-online
    buy-strongu-stu-u1-52th-online
    buy-strongu-stu-u8-pro-60th-s-online
    buy-whatsminer-d1-48th-online
    buy-whatsminer-m30s-112th-s-online
    buy-whatsminer-m31s-80th-s-online
    buy-whatsminer-m32-62th-s-online
    buy-whatsminer-m32s-66th-s-online

    https://bitmainantminer-bv.com
    Email : bitmainantminerbv@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. We bring to you the latest and top-quality firearms ant very affordable/considerate prices! All of our guns are fully assembled, including any modifications made upon request. please contact us directly with questions or concerns prior ordering depending on current weather conditions where applicable. All Federal Firearms Licensees must be contacted before purchase so that their name may not appear when placing orders since we do use names listed only as reference during production – no warranties expressed here unless stated otherwise.
    Buy Mossberg 590M 12 Gauge Mag-Fed Pump-Action Shotgun online

    ReplyDelete

  24. https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/mdma/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/lsd/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/microdose-psylocibin/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/kratom/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/magic-mushrooms/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/buy-edibles-mushrooms-online/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/buy-ketamine-online/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/dmt/

    https://hippiestore.org/product-category/psychedelics/ayahuasca/

    ReplyDelete
  25. Most valuable and fantastic blog I really appreciate your work which you have done about the electricians,many thanks and keep it up. Very useful info. Hope to see more posts soon! I really like to read this post, it shares lots of information to readers.a

    Graphic Design company in USA

    Label Design

    Box Packaging Design

    Packaging Host

    Die Cut Stickers

    Static Cling

    Lahore Smart City Payment Plan

    Hosting Mart

    ReplyDelete
  26. Favorable site, where did u create the info on this uploading? I have checked out a few of the short articles on your web site now, and I actually like your style. Many thanks a million and please keep up the efficient job.
    Archives
    eprimefeed.com
    Latest News
    Economy
    Politics
    Tech
    Sports
    Movies
    Fashion

    ReplyDelete